How a shadow banking disaster despatched India’s autos sector right into a tailspin

MUMBAI (Reuters) – Sudhir Gharpure and his gross sales group sat chatting at an enormous Maruti Suzuki (MRTI.NS) dealership on the outskirts of Mumbai some two hours after its doorways have been opened on a latest Saturday morning – not a single buyer was in sight.

FILE PHOTO: A employee adjusts the windscreen wipers of a parked automotive at a Maruti Suzuki stockyard on the outskirts of the western Indian metropolis of Ahmedabad September 1, 2011. REUTERS/Amit Dave/File Photograph

“There was once near 15-20 bookings every day, however now we’re right down to 3-5 on good days,” mentioned Gharpure, the overall supervisor on the dealership.

Gharpure’s expertise just isn’t an remoted one. Throughout India dealerships are being pushed out of enterprise and the Indian auto sector goes via its greatest stoop in almost twenty years. Passenger car gross sales fell for eight straight months till June, and in Could gross sales dropped 20.55% – the sharpest recorded fall in 18 years.

Preliminary knowledge signifies passenger car gross sales might have plunged as a lot as 30 p.c in July. The stoop in India, together with a simultaneous slide in Chinese language auto gross sales, is a blow for automakers wrestling with greater prices pushed by extra stringent emission norms and a push to develop electrical automobiles.

In contrast to in China, the place the plunge in automobiles gross sales has been triggered largely by new emissions guidelines, India has seen a mixture of components which have mixed to erode demand for cars.

Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s 2016 ban on high-value financial institution notes, greater tax charges underneath a brand new items and companies tax regime, a growth of ride-sharing corporations corresponding to Uber and Ola, and a weak rural financial system have all performed a task.

However many sellers and automakers agree it’s a deepening liquidity crunch amongst India’s shadow banks that has been the largest single think about an auto gross sales collapse, which some concern might result in greater than 1,000,000 job losses.

(Graphic: India Passenger Automobile Gross sales –

Non-banking finance corporations (NBFCs), or shadow banks, have dramatically slashed lending following the collapse of one of many greatest, IL&FS, in late 2018.

IL&FS, or Infrastructure Leasing & Monetary Providers Ltd, was a behemoth in shadow banking and its defaults and unraveling, amid fraud allegations, have dried up funding for rivals and led to a surge of their borrowing prices.

Non-bank or shadow banking corporations generate credit score exterior conventional lenders, by means corresponding to collective funding automobiles, broker-dealers or funds that put money into bonds and cash markets.

In India, NBFCs have lately helped fund almost 55-60% of business automobiles each new and used, 30% of passenger automobiles and almost 65% of the two-wheelers within the nation, based on ranking company ICRA.

To irritate issues, the stress within the autos market has additionally prompted banks to start trimming their publicity to the sector.

“The automotive doesn’t promote, it’s the finance that sells,” mentioned R. Vijayaraghavan, a senior advertising and marketing guide on the similar Mumbai dealership. “Right now the finance just isn’t promoting, so the automobiles aren’t promoting.”


Some 286 dealerships have shut down within the final 18 months throughout India as rising prices for stock administration have made companies unviable, based on the Federation of Car Sellers Affiliation (FADA), a foyer group of auto sellers.

“The slowdown within the (NBFC) sector has dragged down car gross sales development,” mentioned A.M. Karthik, monetary sector head at ICRA. “Now the auto slowdown is turning into extra seen because the liquidity squeeze continues.”

Automakers together with Maruti Suzuki (MRTI.NS), Tata Motors (TAMO.NS), and Mahindra & Mahindra (MAHM.NS) are feeling the warmth and have both reduce manufacturing or quickly closed crops to appropriate mounting shares.

In line with FADA knowledge, passenger car inventories now stand at 50-60 days up from round 45 days earlier, whereas these of two-wheelers are even greater at 80-90 days. For industrial automobiles, stock ranges vary between 45 and 50 days.

“We’re asking sellers to keep up a listing of 21 days, which is sort of half of the present ranges,” mentioned Ashish Kale, president of FADA.

At the least 4 sellers from totally different manufacturers mentioned, nevertheless, there was little scope to cut back inventories as automakers have been pushing them to purchase inventory regardless of there being no demand even with heavy discounting and different sops on provide.

Whereas 70-75% of automotive gross sales have been beforehand financed in-house by NBFC or financial institution brokers sitting at a dealership, that has fallen to about 50%, say sellers, as patrons battle to qualify underneath extra stringent lending norms put in place by lenders which are underneath strain to shore up their books.

Furthermore, as many NBFCs sometimes lent to much less creditworthy shoppers, banks are reticent to hurry in to fill the void, as they themselves battle to deal with an current pile of about $150 billion in unhealthy loans.

(Graphic: Delinquency ranges in India auto loans –

“The banking sector is actually one of many components that has affected the expansion of the business,” mentioned R.C. Bhargava, chair of Maruti Suzuki, noting rates of interest for automotive patrons have gone up within the final 12 months regardless of the central financial institution slicing charges.


With the autos sector using greater than 35 million individuals straight and not directly, and contributing greater than 7% to India’s GDP and accounting for 49% of its manufacturing GDP, the fallout from the autos stoop is big and presents an enormous problem to Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s authorities because it begins its second time period.

The whole provide chain, from car producers to part makers, are bleeding amid the stoop.

“I’ve been making my funds for the final 30 years and the lenders know me,” mentioned Adarsh Gupta, the director of finance at Autolite (India), a part manufacturing agency. “However even a two-day delay has individuals crying that I’ll default.

“I too need to pay, however due to the autumn in cashflows I’m dealing with short-term points and due to that it’s tough to get extra financing. That is the vicious cycle we’re in.”

Nonetheless, automakers are hopeful of a restoration within the months forward, helped by the September-December festive season that historically sees a surge in shopper spending.

“One can solely want that issues enhance sooner relatively than later. With festive demand beginning to seep via, we should always begin seeing a gradual enchancment in gross sales,” mentioned P.B. Balaji, group CFO at Tata Motors.

Analysts are extra skeptical although, and say with out car financing turning into cheaper and simpler the possibilities for which are low. With no silver lining in sight, analysts concern unhealthy money owed might mount within the auto sector, forcing banks to additional cut back their publicity.

“We see market costs and gross sales coming down so there could also be points,” mentioned a high official on the Indian Banks’ Affiliation. “We might see a spillover when it comes to unhealthy loans for the general sector, however we’re going to wait and watch.”

Sellers mentioned they have been hopeful of tiding over the present downturn because the broader development story for India stays intact, however there could possibly be much more ache earlier than a restoration kicks in.

“The longer term goes to be multi-brand automotive showrooms,” mentioned advertising and marketing guide Vijayaraghavan. “That’s the solely manner for dealerships to outlive going ahead as overhead prices have to be shared.”

Further reporting by Derek Francis in BANGALORE; and Aftab Ahmed and Aditi Shah in NEW DELHI; Enhancing by Euan Rocha and Alex Richardson

Author: Maxwell C.

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